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Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) loaded poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) microspheres (MS) might be employed for apexification requiring a sustained release of Ca++. The aim of this study was to formulate and characterize Ca(OH)2-PLGA-MS. The Ca(OH)2-loaded MS were prepared by either oil-in-water (O/W) or water-in-oil/in-water (W/O/W) emulsion solvent evaporation technique. MS produced by the O/W technique exhibited a larger diameter (18.63 ± 7.23 μm) than the MS produced by the W/O/W technique (15.25 ± 7.37 μm) (Mann Whitney U test P < 0.001). The Ca(OH)2 encapsulation efficiency and Ca++ release were calculated from data obtained by absorption techniques. Ca++ release profile was evaluated for 30 days. The percentage of encapsulation efficiency of the O/W-produced MS was higher (24%) than the corresponding percentage of the W/O/W-produced MS (11%). O/W- and W/O/W-produced MS released slower and lower Ca++ than a control Ca(OH)2 paste with polyethylene glycol 400 (ANOVA 1 way, Tukey HSD P < 0.01). O/W-produced MS released higher Ca++ than W/O/W-produced MS (statistically significant differences with t-Student test). We concluded that Ca(OH)2-PLGA-MS were successfully formulated; the technique of formulation influenced on the size, encapsulation efficiency and release profile. The MS were better sustained release system than the Ca(OH)2 paste.


This is the authors' accepted manuscript of an article published in the journal Odontology in July, 2015. The final publication is available at Springer via



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