Document Type


Publication Date



Purpose: The aim of this study was to categorize the effects of heat on coronal obturation with gutta-percha and sealer using X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT).
Methods: Ten single-rooted, extracted human teeth were shaped using ProTaper NEXT files to size X5 (#50/Taper 6%) with 2.5% NaOCl irrigation. A single ProTaper NEXT X5 gutta-percha point was then inserted with epoxy resin (AH Plus) or tricalcium silicate (EndoSequence BC) sealer (n = 5/group), and cut at the cemento-enamel junction. The teeth were scanned using micro-CT (SkyScan1272) to obtain 11 sagittal 2-D images. Three calibrated raters categorized the coronal 0.5 mm of the images into four categories: “swirled sealer and/or gutta-percha without voids” (I), “uniform voids and sealer/gutta-percha” (II), “non-uniform voids and sealer/gutta-percha” (III), and “swirled sealer and/or guttapercha with voids” (IV). Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability were then calculated. Chi-square tests were conducted to determine the significance of differences in each category between sealers.
Results: The intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.55 (same rater/two different times) and Fleiss’ kappa (different raters/same image) was 0.34. Categories I, II, III, and IV accounted for 16.4%, 4.2%, 30.3%, and 49.1% for AH Plus, and 6.7%, 4.2%, 27.3%, and 61.8% for EndoSequence BC, respectively. Conclusion: Category IV was most common and Category II the least common. Significant differences were evident between sealers for Category I (P < 0.01).


This article was originally published in Journal of Oral Science:

Shen I, Daniel J, Vo K, Ahn C, Primus C, Komabayashi T. Use of micro-CT to examine effects of heat on coronal obturation. Journal of Oral Science. 2022; advanced publication, June 2022.

The copyright of this paper belongs to the Journal of Oral Science, Nihon University School of Dentistry; placed here with permission.

Authors Shen, Daniel, and Vo were UNE Dental Medicine students at time of research.

Included in

Dentistry Commons



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.