© 2020 Sara K. Dusza
This analysis of literature evaluated retrospective chart reviews and randomized controlled trials of school aged children undergoing surgical procedures necessitating general anesthesia with volatile inhalant anesthetic agents. These studies assessed and compared the efficacy of various routes and timing of administration of dexmedetomidine as a pre-medication to determine the most effective technique in reducing the incidence of postoperative emergence delirium (ED). ED presents as a transient, acute episode of delirium occurring during the transition from unconsciousness to complete wakefulness after general anesthesia with anesthetic gases. The results of this review suggested that pediatric patients treated with intranasal dexmedetomidine preoperatively experienced less traumatic separation from parents, smoother anesthetic inductions, avoided hemodynamic instability intraoperatively, had significantly less episodes of postoperative delirium, and had minimal delay to time of discharge when compared with other pre-medications and routes of administration.
Dusza, Sara K., "Dexmedetomidine Use And Various Techniques Of Administration To Reduce Emergence Delirium In Pediatric Surgical Patients Undergoing General Anesthesia With Volatile Agents" (2020). Nurse Anesthesia Capstones. 37.