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Elisha Coppens

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© 2023 The Author


Surgical resection of a breast tumor is frequently a treatment option for cancer, and in some cases can be curative (Hurtado et al., 2021). Multiple factors increase the risk of metastasis or recurrence including the neuroendocrine stress response to surgery and manipulation of the tumor itself (Kim, 2018). Additional factors include depression of cell-mediated immunity including sympathetic nervous system (SNS) stimulation, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stimulation, and pain (Hurtado et al., 2021). Research suggests that anesthetic selection, particularly total intravenous anesthesia versus volatile inhalation anesthesia (IA), has an impact on cancer recurrence and metastasis in breast cancer patients, however it remains unclear if one is superior to the other.


MSNA Capstone



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