Date of Award



© 2021 Joseph Ehrhard

Document Type


Degree Name

Professional Science Master's (PSM) In Ocean Food Systems


Marine Science

First Advisor

M. Keith Cox

Second Advisor

Chuck Anderson

Third Advisor

Peter Handy

Fourth Advisor

Zach Miller-Hope

Fifth Advisor

Barry Costa-Pierce


The sensitivity of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was investigated to assess the potential of identifying the effects of freezing in market-ready Atlantic sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus). Measurements of resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) were recorded using a Certified Quality Reader (CQR) (Certified Quality Food Inc., Clinton Township, MI 48035) BIA device at 50kHz. Prior to investigating the effects of freezing on BIA measurements a standard operating procedure (SOP) was established to limit sources of error. BIA measurements were used in establishing an SOP which focused upon the preparation of samples through blot drying, as well as, proper orientation of scallops in relation to BIA measurement tools. Once completed, the effects of freezing were investigated by comparing BIA measurements of samples when fresh and after two freezing cycles. Additionally, measurements were taken from samples that were previously frozen using individual quick freeze (IQF) as an additional source of frozen tissue. BIA measurements were capable of identifying the effects of freezing upon scallop tissue when subjected to freezing; therefore, BIA has the potential to be an accurate and precise tool in identifying previously frozen scallop products, which will allow scallop marketing companies to rapidly inform retailers as to the added value of their products.


Professional Science Masters Thesis

Advisors Miller-Hope and Costa-Pierce are UNE faculty members; advisors Cox and Anderson work for Seafood Analytics; advisor Handy works for Bristol Seafoods.