Date of Award



© 2022 Sonja A. Stewart

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)



First Advisor

Laura Bertonazzi

Second Advisor

Darren Akerman

Third Advisor

John Kowalski


This quantitative descriptive study examined the job satisfaction of 39 Direct Care Workers (DCWs) who worked during the COVID-19 pandemic from March 2020-December 2021 in the United States. This was done not to determine cause and effect between the pandemic and job satisfaction of DCWs: the pandemic was simply used as a timeframe. A REDCap survey was posted to two DCWs groups on Facebook which contained information on the study, an electronic version of the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) by Paul Spector (2021) and general demographics questions. Snowball sampling was also encouraged for particpants to share the survey with other DCWs they may know that met the criteria for the study. The results and findings of the research were that globally the sample study scored lower than the Spector (2022) American Social Services Norms, with an 18.24 point overall difference. This can be inferred as the DCWs of the sample study being more dissatisfied than the norms. In addition to this 8 out of 9 facets were less than (0.13-3.45) the provided American Social Service Norms, indicating varying degrees of dissatisfaction/ambivalence in those areas as well. Only 1 facet of the study indicated that the sample study DCWs are slightly more satisfied (0.29 points higher) than the norms, and that was in regards to the work itself. This study’s findings coupled with further research in regards to the job satisfaction of DCWs can be used by provider agencies to address areas where DCWs report dissatisfaction otherwise known as “hygiene”, and maintain initiatives that promote satisfaction also referenced as “motivation” which is supported by the conceptual framework of Herzberg’s theory of job satisfaction (Khanna, 2017).


Ed.D. Dissertation