Faculty Advisor

Markus Frederich



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Polar areas provide unique environments that, though they may seem extreme and uninhabitable, are flourishing with life. These areas around the North and South poles include deep oceans, shallow shelf regions, tundra, mountain ranges and vast glaciers. With the increasing effects of global climate change, a basic knowledge of polar regions is crucial to understand future impacts and implications. The purpose of this book is to give a broad background of polar biology, and also provide details on specific examples through case studies. Topics included throughout this book are: Ice, Life in Polar Regions, Species Interactions, and Anthropogenic Impacts.

The students in the Polar Biology course (MAR 464) at the University of New England have researched and reviewed scientific literature to educate readers about these regions. The class, comprised of fourteen junior and senior Marine Science, Ocean Studies and Marine Affairs, and Environmental Sciences students, selected the different topics, presented the material, wrote the chapters, and assembled the final versions into this book. This book cannot be all inclusive, but we think it will provide an excellent broad overview of the most important aspects of Polar Biology and will stimulate the reader to dive into the material further.

Publication Date



Ice, Life in Polar Regions, Species Interactions, Anthropogenic Impacts


Animal Sciences | Marine Biology | Systems Biology


Copyright © 2016 the authors. Please cite correctly if utilized. Please contact the authors to request permissions for use beyond personal or educational fair use.


Written by students taking the MAR 464 Polar Biology course at the University of New England.

Introduction 7; Ice 13; Arctic And Antarctic Ice 14; Life In The Ice 19; Subglacial Lakes 23; Life In Polar Areas 31; Polar Habitats And Ecosystems 32; Biodiversity: Endangered And Invasive Species In Polar Regions 40; Extinct Species And Fossils 49; Evolution 57; An Investigation Of Antarctic Icefish Adaptiveness 63; Ice Binding Proteins 70; Cool Polar Critters 77; Species Interactions 91; Primary Production 92; Food Webs 101; Predator And Prey Interactions 111; Migration And Behavior 119; Reproduction/Growth 126; Anthropogenic Impacts 131; Discovery Of The Polar Regions 132; Polar Law 140; Economy And Resources At World’s Ends 147; UV Radiation And Ozone Hole 156; Climate Change 163

Life In The Cold: An Investigation Of Polar Regions
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