Date of Award



© 2020 Cyndi Porter Fraser

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)



First Advisor

Ann Burch

Second Advisor

Ashwini Wagle

Third Advisor

Nance Alvarez


Doctor of Pharmacy professional associations such as the American Association of Pharmacy made a call to increase early leadership development of future generations of pharmacists to better prepare them for future leadership positions. This request for change was based on information related to a shift in demographics, an aging baby boom population, retirement of current leaders, changes in pharmacy practice, and an increase of specialty areas in pharmacy. The Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) and Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) recognized this need for improving student leadership development (SLD) by incorporating it into their guidance documentation, CAPE 2013 and ACPE Standards for Doctor of Pharmacy Programs 2016. A specific ACPE accreditation standard, Standard 4, now required Doctor of Pharmacy programs to include SLD within their programs to allow all students to develop their leadership potential. The situation presented a challenge to academic pharmacy leadership, that is, how to integrate programming into an already full curriculum to achieve outcomes associated with SLD. To meet these SLD outcomes, schools and colleges of pharmacy can start by identifying desired leadership characteristics to incorporate into course content for each professional year. This process provides a baseline for ensuring SLD is integrated vertically and horizontally throughout the curriculum. Mapping the SLD course content to the ACPE standard provides a picture of how the curriculum is addressing each area of SLD and helps to identify gaps. Gaps can be filled by adding additional courses or other required programming. This completed research study provides an examination of how the public schools of pharmacy in California have incorporated SLD within their curriculum.


Ed.D. Dissertation